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The Cathedral of Florence.

During the late medieval ages, Italy was made up of a number of small republics. Most notable of these nations were Venice, Florence, Naples, and Sienna. These small states were responsible in ushering in the Renaissance era. This era influenced not only art and music, but architectural design. The structures they built were inflected by those left behind by the Romans, and were intended to out do their neighbors by achieving architectural and engineering greatness. During this time of competition and building, the modern day blue print was developed.

The moving of the St. Peters obelisk.

Of the many structures built by the Italian nations, the Cathedral of Florence is the most notable. Construction of the cathedral started in 1296, and was completed in 1436, with the dome was finally added. The cathedral encompasses a bell tower and baptistery along with the main building. The interior of the cathedral contains many works of art along its walls and under the dome. The dome of the cathedral is known as the Cupola, and spans 41 meters. The dome was also built without any type of wooden scaffoldings, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi used and a building method not used since the Roman Empire.

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